|This is a supplementary document for the Special Issue of Swarm Intelligence 2020 Paper titled Robot swarm democracy: the importance of informed individuals against zealots
Table of Contents
In this paper we study a generalized case of best-of-n model, which considers three kind of agents: zealots, individuals who remain stubborn and do not change their opinion; informed agents, individuals that can change their opinion, are able to assess the quality of the different options; and uninformed agents, individuals that can change their opinion but are not able to assess the quality of the different opinions. We study the consensus in different regimes: we vary the quality of the options, the percentage of zealots and the percentage of informed versus uninformed agents. We also consider two decision mechanisms: the voter and majority rule.
We study this problem using numerical simulations and mathematical models, and we validate our findings on physical kilobot experiments.
We find that
- if the number of zealots for the lowest quality option is not too high, the decision making process is driven towards the highest quality option;
- this effect can be improved increasing the number of informed agents that can counteract the effect of adverse zealots;
- when the two options have very similar qualities, in order to keep high consensus to the best quality it is necessary to have higher proportions of informed agents.
Keywords: Collective Decision Making, Swarm Intelligence, Swarm Robotics, Stubborn agents
Simulation results with
Population – 100
σA (red-zealot-pct) – 22.5
σB (blue-zealot-pct) – 1.25
ρA (red-quality) – 1
ρB (blue-quality) – 1.5
Voting Method – Majority rule (k=3)
Result with Physical Robots for all agents disseminating proportionally
Result with Physical Robots for agents disseminating differentially